Links to vector distribution and habitats
Depending on the region and/or habitat, lymphatic filariasis is transmitted by different types of mosquitoes:
- Culex mosquitoes are primary vectors in urban and semi-urban areas
- In rural areas, Anopheles mosquitoes transmit the disease
- Aedes mosquitoes with filarial nematode larvae can be found mainly in endemic islands in the Pacific
- Mansonia mosquitoes spread the disease in emergent aquatic vegetation
Links to suggested vector-control solutions
Product selection dependent on vector biology and ecology
VectoBac WDG (WG)
Photomicrograph (glycerine mount) of the microfilarial pathogen Onchocerca volvulus in its larval form
Credit: Ladene Newton; PHIL #4637
Source: CDC Public Health Image Library.
Subcutaneous filariasis comes in several forms, with one of the most common and debilitating forms being onchocerciasis, commonly known as “river blindness.”
Onchocerciasis is a parasitic disease caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus. It is transmitted from human to human through the bites of black flies, which become infected with microfilariae, the larval stage of the parasite. As the filarial nematodes mature, spread through the body, and eventually die, they cause a variety of conditions, including skin rashes, skin depigmentation, lesions, itching, and blindness.
The majority of onchocerciasis infections occur in sub-Saharan Africa, although some cases have also been reported in Yemen and isolated areas of Central and South America. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 18 million people suffer from onchocerciasis, with approximately 270,000 cases of blindness related to the infection.
Onchocerciasis is transmitted through the bite of infected black flies of the genus Simulium.
Vector distribution and habitat
Black flies of the Simulium genus can be found around the globe and lay their eggs in moving water.
Link to suggested vector-control solution